Intraoperative Measurements of Male and Female Distal Femurs During Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty

Orthopedic Spine Surgeon Dr. Kingsley R. Chin Medical Paper

Scientific Paper

Chin KR1Dalury DFZurakowski DScott RD.

Interested medical professionals can read through the full paper, also published in the Journal of Knee Surgery, here.


The anteroposterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) dimensions of 200 consecutive osteoarthritic knees (100 males and 100 females) undergoing unilateral primary total knee arthroplasty were compared. For all patients, the mean AP dimension was 57.3 mm (range: 49-66 mm) and the dimension was 10.5% taller in height in men than women. The mean ML dimension was 71.6 mm (range: 56-85 mm), and the dimension was 13.7% wider in men than women. The mean AP/ML ratio was 0.8 for all patients, 0.82 (range: 0.73-0.93) for females and 0.79 (range: 0.70-0.89) for males (P<.001). The data suggest that for any given AP femoral dimension, women tend to have a narrower ML dimension than men, independent of AP height, and an AP/ML ratio of 0.80 most closely approximates a standard-sized distal femur across gender. This report documents important gender differences that may serve as a reference for femoral implant designers and knee surgeons.

About Author Dr. Kingsley R. Chin

Postoperative Cervical Haematoma Complicated by Ipsilateral Carotid Thrombosis and Aphasia After Anterior Cervical Fusion: a Case Report
Dr. Kingsley R. Chin, founder of philosophy and practice of The LES Society and The LESS Institute

Dr. Kingsley R. Chin is a board-certified Harvard-trained orthopedic spine surgeon and professor with copious business and information technology experience. He sees a niche opportunity where medicine, business and information technology meet and is uniquely experienced at the intersection of these three professions. He currently serves as Professor of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences at the Charles E. Schmidt School of Medicine at Florida Atlantic University and Professor of Clinical Orthopaedic Surgery at the Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine at Florida International University and has experience as Assistant Professor of Orthopaedics at the University of Pennsylvania Medical School and Visiting Professor at the University of the West Indies.

Learn more about Dr. Chin here and connect via LinkedIn.

About Less Exposure Surgery

Less Exposure Surgery (LES) is based on a new philosophy of performing surgery, leading the charge to prove through bench and clinical outcomes research that LES treatment options are the best solutions – to lowering the cost of healthcare, improving outcomes and increasing patient satisfaction. Learn more at

The LES Society philosophy: “Tailor treatment to the individual aiding in the quickest recovery and return to a pain-free lifestyle, using LES® techniques that lessen exposure, preserve unoffending anatomy and utilize new technologies which are safe, easy to adopt and reproducible. These LES®techniques lessen blood loss, surgical time and exposure to radiation and can be safely performed in an outpatient center. Less is more.” – Kingsley R. Chin, MD

About The LESS Institute

The LESS Institute is the world leader center of excellence in Less Exposure Surgery. Our safe, effective outpatient treatments help patients recover quickly, avoid expensive hospital stays and return home to their family the same day. Watch our patient stories, follow us on Facebook and visit to learn more.

About SpineFrontier

The above study utilized LES Technology from SpineFrontier – leading provider of LES Technologies and instruments – offering surgeons and patients superior technology and services.

Scientific Paper Author and Citation Details


Chin KR1Dalury DFZurakowski DScott RD.

Author information

  1. Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass, USA.

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